Project Setup and Pre-retrofit Survey

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Legal framework

This chapter reviews how the building codes of different European countries within EcoShopping consortium take into account energy efficiency, renewable energy systems (RES) and in particular, energy efficiency improvements in envelopes, lighting and HVAC systems of existing non-domestic buildings. Building regulations for the non-domestic building sector and their associated codes lay down minimum performance requirements for building fabric elements, technologies and services. The building codes approach the energy performance of non-domestic building holistically, where the overall performance of the building as designed is calculated using a approved software. This gives an asset rating which is then deemed as a pass or fail when compared to the performance level required by the individual building code, normally in terms of a target kWh/m2/annum. The information is summarised in “Appendix 1. Building codes and the EPBD”, more details is available in “Appendix 2. National building energy regulations and standards”.

Equipment standards. Best practice performance criteria have been identified for the majority of technology areas which should be used when they are considered as part of a new build or refurbishment of a non-domestic building, such as EU Green Public Procurement (GPP) criteria and the UK’s Energy Technology List (ETL). The performance of the technologies finally selected for the retrofitting project should match or exceed the best practice performance criteria described in the national/European standards. In the document “Appendix 2. National building energy regulations and standards”, among different building codes and regulations of the studied countries, there are sections deal with the interface of a building and power grid. Similarly, regulations for the renewable electricity generation systems, such as photovoltaic panels and wind turbines, and regulations for heat pumps and daylighting systems are available in the document “Appendix 3. Equipment standards”. The installation of management system for different HVAC zones, control optimisation (for Wet Heating Systems) and lighting control are encouraged by the building codes, nevertheless, the corresponding specifications are basic and lack of detail. Control system are recognized as one of the most effective measures in reducing energy demand and saving primary energy consumption, they should always be part of a refurbishment and EN 15232 “Energy performance of buildings - Impact of Building Automation, Controls and Building Management” should be used as the methodology for estimating their effect. More information is available in the document: “Appendix 4. Best practice specifications”.

Building envelop. Concerning to the building envelopment, the above mentioned document “Appendix 2. National building energy regulations and standards” provides the required performance level collected from the individual building code of project beneficiaries’ countries. As an example, extracted from this document, Table 1 summarizes the U values of some building elements required in the national regulations of the participated countries in EcoShopping project.

Indoor air quality. The air quality inside a building is recognized as a key factor that has close relationship with occupants’ health and comfort level. Some parameters could be taken into consideration in order to fulfil the requirements of the indoor air quality of a building: the operative temperature, air flow velocity, relative humidity, acoustic level, CO2 concentration, illumination level and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The identification of indoor and outdoor comfort indicators are detailed in the document “Appendix 5. Indoor and Outdoor comfort indicators”.

fabric element Austria Croatia Germany Hungary Italy Poland Portugal Spain Turkey UK Best Values
Roof/ceiling 0.20-0.40 0.30-0.40 0.20-0.35 0.25 0.29-0.38 0.20-0.70 0.40-0.50 0.19-0.50 0.25-0.45 0.16-0.25 0.16
Wall 0.35-0.90 0.45-0.75 0.28-0.35 0.45-0.50 0.33-0.62 0.25-1.00 0.50-0.70 0.25-0.94 0.40-0.70 0.28-0.35 0.25
Floor 0.40 0.50-0.80 0.35 0.25-0.50 0.32-0.65 0.25-1.50 0.40-0.50 0.31-0.53 0.40-0.70 0.22-0.25 0.25-0.50 0.22
Windows,roof windows, roof lights, curtain walling and pedestrian doors 1.40-2.50 1.80-3.00 1.30-2.7 1.60-2.50 2.00-4.60 1.30-1.80 3.30-3.40 1.2-5.7 2.4 1.60-2.20 1.20
Vehicle access and similar large doors 1.50 2.9 1.80-2.90 1.80 N/A 1.70 N/A N/A N/A 1.50 1.50
High usage entrance doors 2.50 2.9 1.80-2.90 N/A N/A 1.70 N/A N/A N/A 3.50 1.70